elizabeth

04 Apr 2017 197 views
 
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photoblog image Fissures and Strata

Fissures and Strata

The geology of the Zion and Kolob Canyons area includes nine 

formations that together represent 150 million years of mostly Mesozoic

aged sedimentation. Part of the super-sequence of rock units called the

Grand Staircase, the formations exposed in the Zion area were

deposited as sediment in very different environments:  warm, shallow

seas of the Kaibab and Moenkopi formations; streams, ponds and lakes

of the Chinle, Moenave and Kayenta formations; vast deserts of the Navajo

and Temple Cap formations; and dry near-shore environments of the

Carmel formation.  Uplift associated with the creation of the Colorado

Plageau lifted the region 10,000 feet (3,000 m) starting 13 million years ago.

This steepened the stream gradient of the ancestral Virgin and other rivers

of the plateau.  The faster moving streams took advantage of the uplift

created joints in the rocks.  Eventually all Cenozoic aged formations were

removed and gorges were cut into the plateaus.  During the later part of

this process, lava flows and cinder cones covered parts of the area. 

 

Table of formations exposed in Zion National Park

Zion-Nationalpark-Gesteinsschichten.svg

Rock layer Appearance Location Deposition Rock type Photo
Dakota Formation Cliffs Top of Horse Ranch Mountain Streams Conglomerate and sandstone Dakota Sandstone
Carmel Formation Cliffs Mount Carmel Junction Shallow sea and coastal desert Limestone, sandstone and gypsum Carmel Formation
Temple Cap Formation Cliffs Top of West Temple Desert Sandstone Temple Cap Formation atop Navajo Sandstone
Navajo Sandstone Steep cliffs 1,600 to 2,200 ft (490 to 670 m)

thick; red lower layers are colored by iron oxides

Tall cliffs of Zion Canyon; highest exposure is West Temple. Cross-bedding shows well at Checkerboard Mesa (photo) Desert sand dunes covered 150,000 sq mi (390,000 km2). Shifting winds during deposition created cross-bedding Sandstone Navajo Sandstone showing its two tones
Kayenta Formation Rocky slopes Throughout canyon Streams Siltstone and sandstone Kayenta Formation
Moenave Formation Slopes and ledges Lower red cliffs seen from Zion Human History Museum Streams and ponds Siltstone and sandstone Moenave Formation
Chinle Formation Purplish slopes Above Rockville Streams Shale, loose clay and conglomerate Chinle Formation
Moenkopi Formation Chocolate cliffs with white bands Rocky slopes from Virgin to Rockville Shallow sea Shale, siltstone, sandstone, mudstone, and limestone Moenkopi Formation
Kaibab Limestone Cliffs Hurricane Cliffs along I-15 near Kolob Canyons Shallow sea Limestone Hurricane Cliffs/Kaibab Limestone

 

photoblog image Zion 27 b.jpg

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zion_National_Park

Fissures and Strata

The geology of the Zion and Kolob Canyons area includes nine 

formations that together represent 150 million years of mostly Mesozoic

aged sedimentation. Part of the super-sequence of rock units called the

Grand Staircase, the formations exposed in the Zion area were

deposited as sediment in very different environments:  warm, shallow

seas of the Kaibab and Moenkopi formations; streams, ponds and lakes

of the Chinle, Moenave and Kayenta formations; vast deserts of the Navajo

and Temple Cap formations; and dry near-shore environments of the

Carmel formation.  Uplift associated with the creation of the Colorado

Plageau lifted the region 10,000 feet (3,000 m) starting 13 million years ago.

This steepened the stream gradient of the ancestral Virgin and other rivers

of the plateau.  The faster moving streams took advantage of the uplift

created joints in the rocks.  Eventually all Cenozoic aged formations were

removed and gorges were cut into the plateaus.  During the later part of

this process, lava flows and cinder cones covered parts of the area. 

 

Table of formations exposed in Zion National Park

Zion-Nationalpark-Gesteinsschichten.svg

Rock layer Appearance Location Deposition Rock type Photo
Dakota Formation Cliffs Top of Horse Ranch Mountain Streams Conglomerate and sandstone Dakota Sandstone
Carmel Formation Cliffs Mount Carmel Junction Shallow sea and coastal desert Limestone, sandstone and gypsum Carmel Formation
Temple Cap Formation Cliffs Top of West Temple Desert Sandstone Temple Cap Formation atop Navajo Sandstone
Navajo Sandstone Steep cliffs 1,600 to 2,200 ft (490 to 670 m)

thick; red lower layers are colored by iron oxides

Tall cliffs of Zion Canyon; highest exposure is West Temple. Cross-bedding shows well at Checkerboard Mesa (photo) Desert sand dunes covered 150,000 sq mi (390,000 km2). Shifting winds during deposition created cross-bedding Sandstone Navajo Sandstone showing its two tones
Kayenta Formation Rocky slopes Throughout canyon Streams Siltstone and sandstone Kayenta Formation
Moenave Formation Slopes and ledges Lower red cliffs seen from Zion Human History Museum Streams and ponds Siltstone and sandstone Moenave Formation
Chinle Formation Purplish slopes Above Rockville Streams Shale, loose clay and conglomerate Chinle Formation
Moenkopi Formation Chocolate cliffs with white bands Rocky slopes from Virgin to Rockville Shallow sea Shale, siltstone, sandstone, mudstone, and limestone Moenkopi Formation
Kaibab Limestone Cliffs Hurricane Cliffs along I-15 near Kolob Canyons Shallow sea Limestone Hurricane Cliffs/Kaibab Limestone

 

photoblog image Zion 27 b.jpg

 

 

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zion_National_Park

comments (14)

  • Ray
  • United States
  • 4 Apr 2017, 04:37
Crikey! Who woulda thought...

Love the artworks of Nature, Elizabeth.
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: Amazing isn't it!
I do too - no better artiste!
Magnifiques effet de la roche et couleurs !
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: Lovely isn't it - thank you, Martine!
  • Philine
  • Germany
  • 4 Apr 2017, 06:35
The geological patterns are fascinating - and our life is only a second!
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: I'm constantly amazed! Yes- we are but a speck!
  • Chris
  • England
  • 4 Apr 2017, 07:20
Time takes on a different dimension when you see and read this Ellie
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: I thought you might find the history interesting, Chris... you, Lisl and Anne perhaps might have more than a passing interest! Thank you for reading!
All a bit awe inspiring E.
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: I'm pleased I can portray what I was feeling at the time!
This could almost be a bit of gnarled wood Elizabeth.
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: Oh yes - I can see that, too...
I used to love Geology at school, this post is so interesting.
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: I've always found it fascinating, Brian! I'm so pleased you enjoyed the history and explanation, here!
Wonderful strata, looks like two gnarled tree trunks
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: Isn't it amazing! Yes - I can see that too!
Just yesterday I was talking of a similar place where distinct layers from different geologic periods can be seen. I would love a visit here.
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: De ja vu! smile I think you would love any place on the Colorado Plateau!
  • Alan
  • Great Britain (UK)
  • 4 Apr 2017, 17:25
I wish that I had had the opportunity to study Geology at school; I find it al fascinating.

When you think of the time period for this formation and then compare it with the history of mankind, we have only been here for the blink of an eyelid in reality.

...and look at the mess we have caused already!
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: I do too, Alan! Well you can study these posts then... smile

It does make you feel small and insignificant. And yes - how much we've screwed up in our short time! Mostly in the last hundred years!
Wonderful colours and textures!
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: Thank you, Tom!
i really like the swirling lines of the sedimentation, Elizabeth. the lava flow info was new to me.
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: Isn't that just beautiful! Kodachrome Basin nearby, was formed by volcanic activity... all this has been such an education to me, as well!
fantastic wave patterns Elizabeth
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: Oh - and you, especially, would appreciate those, Alan!
  • Steven
  • Chicagoland
  • 5 Apr 2017, 01:21
Gorgeous layers, textures and colors!!
Elizabeth Croston Buckalew: I was "short of eyes" as the Dutch would say, Steven!

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